Conspiracy theory: 5 questions that will help to distinguish truth from fiction

Теории заговоров: 5 вопросов, которые помогут отличить правду от выдумки

Conspiracies in the history of the world existed, in fact. But most conspiracy theories just don’t stand the test of rational criticism.

Теории заговоров: 5 вопросов, которые помогут отличить правду от выдумки

Katya Zvereva

Co-founder and coordinator of “the skeptics Society”.

No money is not got love life, career not going well? There is a solution: don’t do anything, forget about working on yourself and blame everything on Zionists, Freemasons, Illuminati, CIA, state Department, Monsanto reptilians or mice mice in the end. .

In a world of ever things don’t go as you want. And our natural suspicion trying to see what had happened a secret meaning, or even malice. Whatever happened — that someone should. And all is not what it seems.

Colleague didn’t say Hello — he hates you. The doctor prescribed expensive medicine — he wants to breed for money. We tend to look for the catch and secret motives even in everyday small things.

It is not surprising that there are conspiracy theories about almost all significant events or phenomena.

McCartney is dead and Lennon alive. The large hadron Collider is designed to awaken Osiris, and the pyramids built by ancient Atlanteans. The Americans were on the moon, and the moon does not exist.

The Ice Bucket Challenge is a satanic ritual, and the hurricane Katrina — climate weapon. In the 51st state of the USA is hiding aliens, and the Titanic didn’t drown. HIV was invented by the CIA, and Victor Tsoi was their secret agent. Reptilians rule the world, but not only: even the Freemasons, the Zionists, Bilderberg, Committee of 300, club of Rome. As they agree between themselves — an interesting question.

Every significant event has its own particular interpretation, including intrigue, subterfuge and secrets. Conspiracy theories claim that various important country, nation or the entire planet event was the result of a secret agreement of a certain group of people: for example, governments or transnational corporations. Whoever these enemies of mankind, they are always extremely intelligent, cunning, and infinitely powerful.

The plot itself is nothing unusual or extraordinary there, sometimes stealth is the only way to achieve this. In the XVIII century, our country has experienced an epoch of Palace coups. And in 2013, the world learned that the national security Agency was watching Edward Snowden for all. The biggest fear of ordinary Americans turned out to be true. After such discoveries is not surprising that people do not trust their government and sees traces of his work in large-scale tragedies.

Obviously, conspiracies do happen, even quite large-scale. Paranoia is justified. And how to understand what is before us: crazy conspiracy theories or is it still a real conspiracy?

The definition in Wikipedia is a conspiracy Theory , but it is unclear where to draw the line and how to know for sure. Often all we can do — to estimate the probability of a conspiracy. And it’s not necessary to immediately understand why the Lunar conspiracy on the moon waving a flag, or that the wreckage found near Roswell incident Roswell. First we need to consider how generally the organization of such events is realistic and justified. And will this few questions.

1. Who are all these people?

Who are these knights without fear and reproach, fanatically devoted to their work and each other? Where did they come from? As he was elected? If expelled from the elite?

According to conspiracy theories, the Illuminati (substitute the name of any other secret organization) is a group of the richest and most influential people who determine the policy of almost all countries. For decades or even centuries of existence, there was no splits or betrayals. All the participants are working for a great purpose, forgetting about personal interests, preferences, and ambitions. One for all and all for one!

Sounds too fantastic for our society.

View to the meetings of the UN or NATO, even disputes on Twitter or Facebook between the rich and the famous, there is no consensus, but there is a difference in moral, political, and economic attitudes, conflict of interests, the desire to push his position and unwillingness to retreat.

And how is it that the powerful of this world, with different backgrounds and ideas about good and bad, suddenly decided to work together on a common cause of destruction of the Russian people (or American, or all non-Jews)?

Besides, it is not clear who is included in the list of the richest. What if the Forbes changed or people are broke? How to determine what a neophyte is ready to serve a higher purpose and will not wreak havoc?

2. How does it work?

What is the structure of the organization? How is the connection? Who exactly is doing all the work? Who repairs printers and configures servers? Where is the secret base?

For a Palace revolution just a few faithful companions: his goal — the elimination of one person for a limited period of time. But if we are talking about some major multi-year conspiracy, in addition to the highest of the elite, deciding the fate of humanity, need a huge staff officers, who will write letters, to buy equipment, to transmit orders, monitor their execution and to eliminate unwanted.

Someone had to bring tons of sand to build a lunar scenery, adjust the lights, and then take it all down as if nothing had happened. And be silent, not ask questions, not to tell friends at the bar or on the Oprah Winfrey TV show.

3. How is secrecy maintained?

Why the plot is still not revealed? Where are the defectors? Where the work of the enemy intelligence? Where ordinary human talk?

In the implementation of the Manhattan project the Manhattan project U.S. intelligence agencies have made tremendous efforts to maintain secrecy: ordinary employees do not know exactly what was developed on the territory of the enterprise, but it has passed strict test, signed confidentiality agreements and were under constant supervision.

Despite all these measures, only in official record Book I – General – Vol 14 – Foreign Intelligence U.S. Department of energy says about 1 500 investigated cases, unintentional information leakage, and 1 200 cases of violations of the rules of work with classified documents.

Preservation of secrecy prevented not only human negligence, but also Soviet intelligence Espionage and the Manhattan Project . Many became spies because of his sympathy for the Soviet regime and was able for a short time to convey a lot of secret documents. The Soviet Union used the resulting best practices and was able to create their own nuclear bomb by 1949.

But why the Soviet Union, having a well-developed spy network, recognized the flight of the Americans, their main competitors in the space race, the moon? Imagine a dialogue with a supporter of the lunar conspiracy:

— Why the Soviet Union recognized the flight of the Americans to the moon?

— They also cheated, they are unable to recognize a fake.

— The Union had developed a spy network in the United States and, certainly, NASA was sympathetic to the Communist regime, which it was possible to recruit to get the information first hand.

— So, too, the Soviet Union was in collusion.

— That is, the Union agreed to support the false triumph of his main rivals in the space race?

He was getting some benefit from silence.

Okay. Let’s say the Soviet leadership under Brezhnev there were reasons to hide the truth, but why Andropov did not happen a global of revelations? Still, the attempt to establish peaceful relations after the change of General Secretary was replaced by the aggravation of the situation.

— Andropov knew nothing about the plot.

— First of all, Andropov spent 15 years as Chairman of the KGB, who better to know all the secrets of the enemy? Second, even if he was not aware of, why there was not a single traitor among the initiates after the death of Brezhnev?

The further dialogue, the more questionable assumptions. But supporters of the lunar conspiracy don’t give up, and in 2015 they allegedly received irrefutable proof of his position: he was Stanley Kubrick in one of the interviews says Stanley Kubrick Confesses To Faking The Moon Landings that he actually filmed the moon landing in a Studio. For some it’s still an argument, although the video was a fake: there starred actor, a bit similar to the famous Director. All the real “witnesses” of the lunar conspiracy somehow still silent.

In 1965, NASA worked 411 000 people: it’s hard to believe that among them there was not a single talker, which is not boasted would be at the party how they fooled the whole world by flight to the moon. Of course, it is possible to conceal the details of the project to all staff, but in this case you need to convince them not to ask questions, look around, not to look for information on the Internet.

4. What is the purpose of the conspirators?

Why you need a conspiracy? What will the conspirators? Is the game worth the candle?

For some of the alleged conspiracies, even if they are not justified, the motivation may be understandable. For example, the American government wanted to justify the invasion of Iraq with the September 11 attacks. The objective is clear, but remember: no matter how significant the consequences, it does not prove the truth of the hypothesis.

Keeping secrets is difficult, especially if such knowledge influences the fate of mankind and occupies a significant part of your life. Constant control should be well repaid — if not very good salary or threats or by promise of a bright future.

But not all conspiracies are the benefits for each participant are obvious. If you go back to the lunar conspiracy: Neil Armstrong will be silent, because at stake is his reputation. But why keep the mystery of the ordinary worker who cleaned sand after filming and took in the scenery? The authorities in the country have long been other people, so telling the truth is not dangerous, and the interest in the subject never waned. Why not write a revealing book or not to talk about it on YouTube? You can get fame and money, to restore justice and to punish the crooks, but after almost 50 years silence reigns.

5. Rational methods of the conspirators?

This is exactly the best solution? Is there a simple way to get what you want?

People who are able to fool all of humanity, must be extremely intelligent and calculating. Their solution should be, if not the best, very well thought out and reasonable.

But not always conspirators are evil geniuses. Judge for yourself: if, according to some theories, the building can not fall from the crashed them airplanes, and even straight down, why American intelligence agencies have decided to play such an unrealistic story? Are they not found more elaborate ideas for his evil plan?

Another example of the “treachery” of the U.S. government — chemtrails Chemtrails . Conspiracy theorists argue that it is not just condensate, and hazardous chemicals, which poison civilians. But spraying poisons by using passenger aircraft, which fly at a height of 9-11 kilometers, is expensive and inefficient.

Questions you can think of quite a lot, and ifona larger part of them remains without a clear answer, it is likely that in front of us just a fantasy, not a realistic description of the plot.

If you look closely, the evil genius of conspiracy theories prove to be not such geniuses and their evil plans — not very sophisticated. One can only wonder at how such stupid decisions they are able to control the situation or the world.

To implement their ideas usually require organization with no accidents, missteps and omissions. All went according to plan and are always performed accurately and on time. But it does not happen, and therefore, as correctly noted Pelevin, “the world is ruled not a secret Lodge, and the obvious crap.”

And the mice, mentioned in the beginning, said Douglas Adams in the book “Hitchhiker’s guide to the Galaxy. Restaurant “At the end of the Universe””.

— Creatures you call mice are not as they seem to you. You notice only, that is to say, imprint in our dimension of vast Hyper-intelligent androstenone creatures.

The old man paused and added sympathetically:

I’m afraid they put on you experiences.

Arthur deep in thought. Then his face cleared.

— There is a clear misunderstanding. You see, what we put on them experiments. Behaviorism, Pavlov and other… Mouse passed all sorts of tests, learning to ring the bell, run in the maze. On the behavior of the mice we studied…

Arthur’s voice was quiet.

— Such subtlety… — said is Slartibartfast. Of course you can come in the rapture. How better to disguise the true purpose? Suddenly through the maze the wrong way, eating the wrong piece of cheese, unexpectedly die from myxomatosis… Inimitable cunning!

See also

  • How to see the truth in a sea of misinformation: 12 tips from John Grant
  • 10 books that help develop critical thinking
  • Why do people believe in conspiracy theories
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