The black death swept Europe in the mid-fourteenth century and lasted until the late eighteenth century. According to various testimonies, the first outbreak took (1347-1353) from 30 to 50 percent of the population of the continent. Further, the pandemic of plague returned every 10-15 years in different European countries.
Wrote the Arab historian Ibn al Vardi, who himself became a victim of the disease, the birthplace of the plague was the “Land of darkness”, in which the disease broke out on 15 years earlier than in Europe. He correlated the appearance of the infection and the return of Arab merchants from the Crimea.
Modern scientists suggest that the causative agent Yersinia pestis was brought through the trade routes from Central Asia or West of the Urals. The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
To such conclusions came as a result of studying the historical and archaeological data, as well as the study of five genomes of the pathogen found in the remains of a medieval Europeans.
To clarify this issue, researchers from Norway, France, Italy and the UK under the leadership of Niels Stenseth from the University of Oslo have studied five of the genomes of Yersinia pestis, which they found in the tombs of the middle of the XIV century in France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway.
It is known that the plague is transmitted from rodents to man, and one of the carriers of the infection is the rat flea. Animals are a natural reservoir of Yersinia pestis Yersinia pestis.
Scientists have put forward two hypotheses about how and where the pathogen could survive for such a long time.
1.After the plague Bacillus was introduced to Europe, it persisted in one or several tanks in Western Europe, and occasionally provoked the outbreak.
2 Plague Bacillus occasionally brought to Western Europe from the East or from Central Asia.
Scientists came to the conclusion that Y. pestis periodically came to Western Europe through the trade routes, along with goods.
The two genomes of Yersinia pestis, discovered in the tomb in the Netherlands, proved to be genetically similar to the genomes of bacteria found in the remains of plague victims in London and in Bulgar. In both cities, the outbreak of plague happened in the early 1360-ies.
With regard to the same strain of Y. pestis from London, she could come along with furs from Veliky Novgorod or Bulgar. Both of these cities in the middle ages were centers of the fur trade.
Another route by which the plague Bacillus could be in Europe, was a trade route of Bulgaria in the black sea Kaffa (now Feodosia), and then — in the countries of southern Europe.
It is also likely that the fur of the Bulgarian merchants traded with the countries of Central Asia, where the plague pathogen is found today. And Asia the plague was repeatedly able to get to Europe.
Recall that rats caught in the spread of a new disease.
As reported by the portal “Znayu” these deadly disease struck our ancestors.
Also “Znayu” I wrote, changes in climate will cause the Black death.